MAIN PRINCIPLES AND PROCESS OF CONSTRUCTION
Building walls with VELOX panels is simple. The panel structure is built up around the floor plan, usually starting from a corner of the building. The panel structure then stands, in its entirety, around the proposed floor plan.
Creating a corner
The panels are mounted so that the first is fitted 50mm from the corner of the building with more ties placed at regular intervals. The last tie should be placed about 50mm from the end of the board.
Simply rotate the board 180° on its ties.
Place the internal panels into the ties making sure the end of a panel goes into a tie.
The outer and inner boards must overlap by at least thickness of a board. Therefore it’s best to start construction with one whole and one half board.
Double-sided ties should always be placed directly above the previous row of ties, on both the internal and external panels.
Ties are positioned as before – the first tie should be positioned about 50mm from the corner and then at 250mm intervals. The last tie is always fitted about 50mm from the end plate.
The next internal panel is assembled at a right angle to the first and nailed in place.
The outer panel is then fitted to the ties and nailed in place. Building out from the corner you begin to construct the boards around the floor plan.
Curved walls are handled as shown with a minimum of two ties on each horizontal joint.
As the base layers are assembled, shuttering panels are added simultaneously which help to support the structure. Internal bearing walls are established with nail joints.
During assembly it is possible to insert waste and vent pipes, electrical boxes, electrical wiring conduits, etc.
Where needed, cut into the polystyrene strip and remove the casting. Small grooves for wiring can be cut using a router.
For buildings with high requirements for sound insulation the walls must not be structurally compromised.
After the first layer is assembled, concreting can commence throughout up to a height of approximately 400mm, (the lower edge of a double tie). After pouring the concrete, the structure must be checked so that the vertical position of the boundary wall bars and braces can be controlled.
The second layer of boards are mounted in the steel ties and fixed. Offset the layers of the wall structure by a minimum of 250mm, and make sure the offset between the inner and outer panels is at least the same as the wall thickness.
Bedding and joints must be accurate, with no spaces between the boards. Boards in contact with each other should be nailed together to prevent displacement.
Corners are made by alternating the overlaying external panels at the point of contact with the nail.
If concreting the floor at the same time, it is recommended to use VELOX WSD boards.
When using VELOX WS boards it is recommended to use ties with the boards to increase the strength of the structure. One layer of formwork needs 1-2 fasteners per metre.
At the point of contact between walls and ceilings external shuttering panels are needed, up to the upper level of the proposed ceiling. These will be secured onto the ceiling with ties.
Windows and doorways are constructed using bars that seal the wall on three sides. Marginal strips are nailed to the wall plate. The windowsill is left open for concreting.
Prop up load distribution beams with wooden or steel props and nail them in place to the inner wall panel.
The distance between vertical supports should be a maximum of 800 mm. Load bearing beams should be positioned under each of the ceiling elements.
Ceiling fittings are incorporated into the boards and the wall plates are spread around the perimeter and nailed to the inner casing. Any gaps that are needed in the ceiling are laid so that the ties overlap the load-bearing walls. The perimeter of the load-bearing walls benefits from a continuous (Vienna Ring) reinforcement.
Console parts (balconies, cornices, bay windows) and ceilings of unusual floor plans must document the static calculations.
The walls and ceilings are gradually filled with concrete, including the final casting of a 50 mm concrete slab above ceiling fittings. After the concrete has set the formwork can be started for the next floor.
Before positioning the ceiling formwork boards check for misalignment of the walls. Support the ceiling with simple props (wooden or steel) and use prisms to create a grid. Use this to create a metal cross-grid, which is to be nailed onto the inner formwork wall boards. Spread the supports up to 660mm apart to make reinforced concrete slabs up to 200mm thick.
The perimeter walls of the inner plates are nailed to the formwork and is are self-reinforcing because they overlap the load-bearing walls. The perimeter of the load-bearing walls benefits from a continuous (Vienna Ring) reinforcement.
Exposed wall and ceiling formwork is gradually filled with concrete. After the concrete has set the formwork can be started for the next floor.
Transporting the panels
Velox boards are transported on low loader trucks allowing them to be kept upright whilst in transit, supported by a wooden support frame or stored on polystyrene blocks. The boards must be fixed to the transport rack with straps. The corners of the panels should rest on a solid base (wood, steel or plastic) to prevent any damage. The number of panels transported in one go can vary depending on the type of boards and the type of transport racks. Stands can hold 3-4 boards (one stand) or 6-8 boards (bilateral stands).
Any movement of the boards must happen whilst they remain in a vertical position using a carrier belt attached to the top of the panel.
VELOX panels must be stored so as to prevent any damage, especially absorbent VELOX panels.
Boards must be stored on racks or on a flat, paved and drained area and must always be supported by a wooden support frame or stored on polystyrene blocks.
Acoustic panels can be stored on their sides, perpendicular or at a slight angle to the ground, and can be stacked up to 8 panels high.
VELOX acoustic panels (PHP) are low weight and simple to install quickly and at low cost. Installation can be carried out by a team of as little as three trained personnel.
Check the dimensions of the panels against the plans before starting construction.
Handling VELOX acoustic panels (PHP) is done using a crane or lifting equipment. Depending on the type, profiled acoustic absorption panels can weigh up to 1500 kg each.
The panels are slotted into vertical beams (HEA/HEB profiles or concrete columns) with the axial distance corresponding to the length of the panel:
- PHP installed in HEA/HEB 160 with a wooden support frame should be about 6cm shorter than the distance between the posts.
- PHP installed in concrete sections with a wooden support frame should be about 18cm shorter than the distance between the posts.
- PHP installed in concrete angular profiles with a wooden support frame should be about 26cm shorter than the distance between the posts.
Axial distance columns and wooden frame length PHP
|Type column / deduction of the length of the frame (mm)
from one side of the
|HEA / HEB||Concrete
|HEA / HEB||30||60||120||160|
|Concrete column angle (135 °)||130||160||220||260|
An acoustic panel must be placed on a plinth panel, unless otherwise agreed with the manufacturer.
The maximum width of a skirting panel is 18cm. Before mounting PHP into a plinth panel, check the vertical profile is centered to ensure the right fit. A wooden support frame is in turn supported by the plinth panels. Plinth panel absorber plates must not adjoin VELOX acoustic panels (PHP).
VELOX acoustic panels must be moved by crane to safely insert the panels into the prepared profiles. Two workers are required to guide each panel into place. Detergent or organic oils may be used to help seat the panels properly. Each panel must be centered exactly into the vertical profiles it is fitting into. This is especially important when installing multiple panels over the top of each other to form continuous noise barriers.
Cutting the panels is easily done using a circular saw with a WIDIA wheel.
If damage to the mounting plates occurs during installation it is essential to carefully replace the damaged VELOX acoustic panels (PHP).
Installation equipment – a ladder or scaffolding, carpentry hammer, crowbar, ruler, soap and detergent (or organic oils).
Installation of the upper sealing element (HUP)
The upper CETRIS sealing element is pre-drilled so that each side overlaps the VELOX acoustic panels. After positioning the panel, CETRIS is screwed into the wall panel frame. CETRIS panels require acrylic sealer to cover the metal join caps. CETRIS panels are easily cut using a circular saw with a WIDIA wheel.
HUP sheet metal must be of sufficient width so that rainwater doesn’t leak down the walls or into the panels beneath. The minimum overlap should be 50mm.
The top of the panels are weatherproofed with snap-on metal coverings made of zinc, titanium zinc, copper or aluminum so as to avoid gaps between the plates and prevent water seeping into the panel wall.
VELOX noise barrier tiles are used to dampen noise in tunnels, under bridges or in locations that do not allow the use of regular acoustic panels – such as in retaining walls.
VELOX acoustic tiles are hung on the wall using the SPID concrete facade anchor system, which is fastened to the concrete wall's SPIDI anchors. This system allows for the offset of VELOX panels from the concrete walls and therefore is not affected by any irregularities in the concrete. The board itself is anchored to horizontal beams which are made of durable and weather resistant high-strength aluminium.
Before starting, work must be done to detect and measure out any unevenness in the base wall. SPIDI anchors are attached to the concrete wall, two per meter. In the case of unevenness use plastic shims. Fix VELOX acoustic tiles using fixing screws of sufficient length on the L profiles of the tiles. After assembly VELOX acoustic tiles may be coated in the same way as noise barriers.
How to install
The necessary height of VELOX panels can be determined by the height used in wreaths or ceilings. The standard height of shuttering panels is 250mm.
Formwork wreaths are created before installing the ceiling. Annular boards are fitted with clamps and placed on the construction of the wall. The assembled boards are added horizontally next to each other and fixed together with screws or nails. VELOX clips ensure the stability of annular boards.
Annular boards can be easily cut to create different shaped layouts.
How to install
The standard height of formwork boards is up to 250mm. The width of the formwork depends on the width of the wall.
Annular boards are fitted with clamps and placed on the original wall. The assembled boards are added horizontally next to each other and fixed together with screws or nails. VELOX clips provide stability to the boards. Annular boards can be easily cut to create different shaped layouts. In the space between the plate is a horizontal reinforcement, which reinforces the wreaths and garlands. Pour concrete as prescribed.
The necessary concrete strength classes will be defined by the building’s architect and indicated in the project specifications. Concrete mix for VELOX walls should have a soft texture with a grain size up to 16mm.
Concrete can be poured into VELOX formwork using either a pump or a basket. Concrete must be poured continuously around the perimeter of assembled VELOX formwork in horizontal layers 50cm high. Before pouring check to make sure that all formwork has been assembled properly. The concrete mixture must be thoroughly and uniformly compacted into all parts of the structure.
After concreting the base layer formwork, casting is done one floor at a time, including the ceiling. Steps to make sure that the formwork is strong enough:
- When assembling formwork for walls with VELOX WS panels it is recommended to use high tensile fasteners in each layer. Compacting the concrete can be done by rodding.
- When assembling WSD shuttering plates it is not necessary to use tension clips. The concrete mixture should be compacted with an immersion vibrator with a 40mm vibrating pear or intense rodding.
The construction of load-bearing walls and subsequent castings may be performed after each layer has set, while maintaining the position and treatment of working joints.
Joints between castings should in principle be positioned so that fresh concrete pressure is perpendicular to it. A joint’s position in the formwork must be about 10cm below the horizontal joint boards. Joints and joint loading plates may be on the same level. During construction all formwork must be kept constantly clean.
During transport, storage, compaction and curing concrete must comply with applicable standards and regulations.
Precautions must be taken when material handling during installation and during pouring of concrete mixtures to avoid permanent deformation of protruding steel reinforcements. The total surface mounting burden of a ceiling element after pouring the concrete into the structure must not exceed 1.5 kN/m2 loading is not permitted and may negatively affect the load bearing capacity of a ceiling and could lead to cracking.
Use a B20 soft consistency concrete mixture with a maximum grain of 16mm. When concreting make sure concrete does not accumulate in one place.
Ceiling structures are concreted into lanes in the same direction as the beams, with ribs and slabs to complete the required ceiling height. When pouring, the casting bar must not be interrupted. Any necessary gaps may be created only between the ceiling joists in the middle of the ceiling element. When concreting it is necessary to completely cover the upper reinforcements.
Concrete mix in and around stiffening ribs must be properly compacted. When using a vibrator the vibrating pear must have a maximum diameter of 40mm. Vibrating through the reinforcements is not allowed. Compaction can also be carried out with intense rodding. After casting, concrete must be kept wet until it hardens.
Ceiling supports can be removed when the concrete reaches the standards set out for the specified concrete class. Supports must always be removed from the top floor to the bottom.
Ceiling implementation must comply with applicable standards and regulations.